This realist evaluation (RE) is located within a 5 year na-tional programme of Transforming Care After Treat-ment in Scotland (TCAT) [24, 25]. Briefly consider a realist research design. Realist evaluation as an approach is still developing and there is no standardised approach to conducting a realist evaluation 20. By focusing on the interrelationships between context, mechanism, and outcome, Pawson and Tilley’s realist approach appears a promising innovation for public health-related evaluation works. In our paper, first we turn attention to the methodology used in the realist evaluation, before analysing pathways of CMO configurations (findings) derived by our data analysis. Through a realist evaluation approach (Pawson & Tilley, 1997), we present context‐mechanism‐outcome (CMO) configurations of a specific intervention conducted in four community settings. Methods and analysis. Realist Evaluation. It provides an explanatory analysis aimed at discerning what works for whom, in what circumstances, in what respects and how. 3. Public health interventions are complex by nature, and their evaluation requires unpacking their intervention logic and their interactions with open social systems. The approaches are theory driven – developing structurally coherent explanations of interventions and test these against empirical data. However, and as expected … … As such, the quantitative outcome analysis and the realist evaluation are combined in a sequential triangulation with a cyclical nature . Discussion. Keywords: Realist evaluation, Realism, Complex health interventions, Mechanisms, Context, Implementation, Primary health care Background The concept of “mechanism” has become a very popular analytic device in applied social science, and particularly in health services and policy research. There has been an exponential increase in the number of online learning resources in medical education (podcasts, websites, and blogs – termed E-learning). Some of the differences between it and fellow members of the genus (programme theory evaluation, theories-of-change evaluation) will be noted in the course of the section. It presents a profound yet highly readable critique of current evaluation practice, and goes on to introduce a `manifesto' and `handbook' for a fresh approach. Realist Evaluation Authors: ... RE might aid in an analysis of which schools, which learners, and within which circumstances would students most benefit from a PBL curriculum. Consistent with a realist evaluation methodology, the analysis focused on exploring the links between context, mechanism and outcome to explain the ways the intervention might work, for whom and in what circumstances. Pawson and Tilley state that the aim of analysis of realist evaluation data is to ‘draw closer to explaining the complex signature of outcomes’ that an intervention may produce . Ample time for analysis and iterative thinking needs to be factored into project timelines. This research uses a mixed methods realist evaluation design. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Realist research approaches (realist evaluation or realist review) can help make sense of these types of interventions or programmes. They suggest the starting point for analysis is to examine whether the theories about how each of the programmes work are supported or refuted by the data. It comprises three linked studies: (1) formulating initial programme theory (IPT) through developing programme logic models to describe regional DHB working; (2) empirically testing IPT through both a qualitative process evaluation of regional DHB working using a case study design; and (3) a … This has been shown to be of benefit when studying complex interactions [ 39 ]. Realist evaluation provides an overall methodological approach for the project and will guide development, testing and refining of middle-range theories through the analysis of the relationships between the context (at macro, meso and micro levels), mechanisms and outcomes [].We will use social science methods to explore views of key actor groups. This introduction will help evaluators and commissioners of evaluations to decide whether a realist approach is appropriate for evaluating the impact of a particular policy or programme. Realist review can use published peer-reviewed articles, evaluation reports, other gray literature, existing data sets (for example census information) and in some cases, interviews to supplement the literature. Using realist theories and methods in programme evaluation and social research also appears to facilitate a more inclusive approach to incorporating the input of those closer to the programme in the study design (consulting practitioners, service-users and other stakeholders) and making sure their views are represented. underpinning realist evaluation (see the ‘Data analysis’ section below for more details). Within realist evaluation, analysis is driven by identifying causal processes ... Realist evaluation approach has gained traction in recent years, and has been successfully used to evaluate programmes in diverse fields, including health service research and others [40, 41]. Realistic Evaluation. The evaluation design is informed by initial programme theory or theories, and ‘tests’ important or priority aspects of these. We value this conceptualisation of RE being an approach to the exploration and explanation of findings generated from various methods of evaluation and quantitative and data analysis. It is a method-neutral approach wherein methods should be selected to align with the research question and objectives, as well as ensure appropriate testing and refinement of the IPT. As far as analysis is concerned, whilst both induction and deduction are used in critical realist research, the need to move from the empirical to the real (causal mechanisms) means that th e It requires a specific way of thinking, theorising, interviewing, coding and analysing (based on an underlying realist philosophy), ideally through an iterative approach involving multiple rounds of data collection. shows how program evaluation needs to be, and can be bettered. Realist Evaluation - an evaluation tool for human intervention services. analysis for realist research and realist evaluation. Programme theory (ideas and assumptions of how a particular intervention works) development is the first step in a realist evaluation or a realist synthesis, with literature reviews providing important evidence to support this. Interviews were held with staff from the SN teams and managers, both on an individual basis and in groups. Consider, in some detail, five principles of realist methodology, which may be applied to research practice including evaluation. Realist methodologies are increasingly being used to evaluate complex interventions in health and social care. Our RE approach to analysis. Realist evaluation uses a theory-driven approach to evaluate healthcare or social programmes. Catherine Brentnall, Iván Diego Rodríguez, and Nigel Culkin. Realist synthesis – also known as realist review – is a form of literature review. Realist review--a new method of systematic review designed for complex policy interventions ... and which is based on the emerging 'realist' approach to evaluation. and documentary analysis. Realist approaches (realist review and realist evaluation) have a specific way of expressing a middle-range theory:Context (C) + Mechanism (M) = Outcome (O)Clarifying concepts …Programme theory - an abstracted description and/or diagram that lays out what a programme (or family of programmes or intervention) comprises and how it is expected to workIntervention … What was planned in the evaluation design, in what order and why is described and justified in detail.

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